Enoxaparin Sodium Injection
Enoxaparin Sodium Injection is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) indicated for:
- Prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in abdominal surgery, hip replacement surgery, knee replacement surgery, or medical patients with severely restricted mobility during acute illness
- Inpatient treatment of acute DVT with or without pulmonary embolism
- Outpatient treatment of acute DVT without pulmonary embolism
- Prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI)
- Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) managed medically or with subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
WARNING: SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMAS
See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients who are anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) or heparinoids and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include:
- Use of indwelling epidural catheters
- Concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, and other anticoagulants
- A history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures
- A history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery
- Optimal timing between the administration of enoxaparin sodium injection and neuraxial procedures is not known
Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Enoxaparin Sodium Injection is contraindicated in patients with active major bleeding, history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) within the past 100 days or in the presence of circulating antibodies, hypersensitivity to enoxaparin sodium and hypersensitivity to heparin or pork products.
Increased Risk of Hemorrhage: Cases of epidural or spinal hemorrhage and subsequent hematomas have been reported with the use of enoxaparin sodium injection and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture procedures, resulting in long-term or permanent paralysis. The risk of these events is higher with the use of postoperative indwelling epidural catheters, with the concomitant use of additional drugs affecting hemostasis such as NSAIDs, with traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal puncture, or in patients with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity.
To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of enoxaparin sodium and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of enoxaparin. Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of enoxaparin is low; however, the exact timing to reach a sufficiently low anticoagulant effect in each patient is not known.
Placement or removal of a catheter should be delayed for at least 12 hours after administration of lower doses (30 mg once or twice daily or 40 mg once daily) of enoxaparin sodium injection, and at least 24 hours after the administration of higher doses (0.75 mg/kg twice daily, 1 mg/kg twice daily, or 1.5 mg/kg once daily) of enoxaparin sodium injection. Anti-Xa levels are still detectable at these time points, and these delays are not a guarantee that neuraxial hematoma will be avoided. Patients receiving the 0.75 mg/kg twice-daily dose or the 1 mg/kg twice-daily dose should not receive the second enoxaparin dose in the twice-daily regimen to allow a longer delay before catheter placement or removal. Likewise, although a specific recommendation for timing of a subsequent enoxaparin sodium dose after catheter removal cannot be made, consider delaying this next dose for at least four hours, based on a benefit-risk assessment considering both the risk for thrombosis and the risk for bleeding in the context of the procedure and patient risk factors. For patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/minute, additional considerations are necessary because elimination of enoxaparin is more prolonged; consider doubling the timing of removal of a catheter, at least 24 hours for the lower prescribed dose of enoxaparin sodium (30 mg once daily) and at least 48 hours for the higher dose (1 mg/kg/day).
Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or lumbar puncture, frequent monitoring must be exercised to detect any signs and symptoms of neurological impairment such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness or weakness in lower limbs), and bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Instruct patients to report immediately if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal hematoma are suspected, initiate urgent diagnosis and treatment including consideration for spinal cord decompression even though such treatment may not prevent or reverse neurological sequelae.
Use enoxaparin sodium injection with extreme caution in conditions with increased risk of hemorrhage, such as bacterial endocarditis, congenital or acquired bleeding disorders, active ulcerative and angiodysplastic gastrointestinal disease, hemorrhagic stroke, or shortly after brain, spinal, or ophthalmological surgery, or in patients treated concomitantly with platelet inhibitors.
Major hemorrhages including retroperitoneal and intracranial bleeding have been reported. Some of these cases have been fatal.
Bleeding can occur at any site during therapy with enoxaparin sodium injection. An unexplained fall in hematocrit or blood pressure should lead to a search for a bleeding site.
Increased Risk of Bleeding following Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization Procedures: To minimize the risk of bleeding following the vascular instrumentation during the treatment of unstable angina, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction and acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, adhere precisely to the intervals recommended between enoxaparin sodium injection doses. It is important to achieve hemostasis at the puncture site after PCI. In case a closure device is used, the sheath can be removed immediately. If a manual compression method is used, sheath should be removed 6 hours after the last intravenous/ subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium injection. If the treatment with enoxaparin sodium is to be continued, the next scheduled dose should be given no sooner than 6 to 8 hours after sheath removal. The site of the procedure should be observed for signs of bleeding or hematoma formation.
Increased Risk of Bleeding in Patients with Concomitant Medical Conditions: Enoxaparin sodium should be used with care in patients with a bleeding diathesis, uncontrolled arterial hypertension or a history of recent gastrointestinal ulceration, diabetic retinopathy, renal dysfunction and hemorrhage
Risk of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia with or without Thrombosis: Enoxaparin sodium may cause Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) or Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia with Thrombosis (HITTS). HITTS may lead to organ infarction, limb ischemia, or death. Monitor thrombocytopenia of any degree closely.
Use of enoxaparin sodium in patients with a history of immune-mediated HIT within the past 100 days or in the presence of circulating antibodies is contraindicated.
Circulating antibodies may persist for several years.
Only use enoxaparin sodium in patients with a history of HIT if more than 100 days have elapsed since the prior HIT episode and no circulating antibodies are present. Because HIT may still occur in these circumstances, the decision to use enoxaparin sodium in such a case must be made only after a careful benefit-risk assessment and after non-heparin alternative treatments are considered.
Thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia can occur with the administration of enoxaparin sodium. Moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet counts between 100,000/mm3 and 50,000/mm3) occurred at a rate of 1.3% in patients given enoxaparin sodium, 1.2% in patients given heparin, and 0.7% in patients given placebo in clinical trials.
Platelet counts less than 50,000/mm3 occurred at a rate of 0.1% in patients given enoxaparin sodium, in 0.2% of patients given heparin, and 0.4% of patients given placebo in the same trials. Thrombocytopenia of any degree should be monitored closely. If the platelet count falls below 100,000/mm3, enoxaparin sodium should be discontinued.
Interchangeability with other Heparins: Enoxaparin sodium cannot be used interchangeably (unit for unit) with heparin or other low molecular weight heparins as they differ in manufacturing process, molecular weight distribution, anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities, units, and dosage. Each of these medicines has its own instructions for use.
Increased Risk of Thrombosis in Pregnant Women with Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valves: Use of enoxaparin sodium for thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves may result in valve thrombosis. In a clinical study of pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves given enoxaparin (1 mg/kg twice daily) to reduce the risk of thromboembolism, 2 of 8 women developed clots resulting in blockage of the valve and leading to maternal and fetal death. No patients in the heparin/warfarin group (0 of 4 women) died. There also have been isolated postmarketing reports of valve thrombosis in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves while receiving enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis. Women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves may be at higher risk for thromboembolism during pregnancy and, when pregnant, have a higher rate of fetal loss from stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and premature delivery. Therefore, frequent monitoring of peak and trough anti-Factor Xa levels, and adjusting of dosage may be needed.